Autumn semester of 1999
Topic of the semester: TOWARD MILLENNIUM: DISCUSSIONS, REVIEWS, PERSONAE
"PHILOSOPHER AND SOCIOLOGIST V. N. MURAVIOV". G. P. AKSENOV.
A. A. SAZANOV. "HERMAN MINKOWSKI AS KOPERNIK OF THE XX CENTURY". The ideas, suggested by Minkowsky in 1908 towards explaining the theory of relativity, proved to be as bold for his and our time, that the science has assimilated them only in the capacity of artificial mathematical shift (four-dimensional formalism of Minkowski). But the space model of Minkowski reflects the deep reality and has the roots in the properties of complex numbers. The World lines, being the essential objects of the picture of the World in Minkowskis comprehension, have just such cinematic and dynamic characteristics in pseudoeukleides space, that must be perceived by means of our organs of senses as material dots or bodies. The discovery of Kopernik had put the beginning to understanding the corporal nature of celestial lights and penetrating into the laws governing the World of material bodies. The ideas of Minkowski have opened the door to understanding the thin-material basis of the Universe. (H.Minkowski. Space and time // Raum und Zeit. Phys. ZS, 1909, b.10, s.104. A.A.Sazanov. Four-dimensional World by Minkowski. Moscow: Science. 1988. P. 224, in Russian. Classical World picture. Minkowskis World model. Substance should be widely understand // Delfis. 1997. ¹¹ 8, 9, 10, in Russian.)
"ASTRONOMER AND SCIENTIST N. A. KOZIREV". S. M. KOROTAEV.
A. A. SILIN. "THE NATURES STAIRCASE. A DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT IN NATURAL SCIENCE AND PHILOSOPHY". The development (evolution) as a kind of the transformation from a simple to a complicate one in the irreversible time. An information as the structure complicateness measure and the entropy as the energy dissipation rate. "A free energy" as the material course of development. The problem of an evolution creative force. The Teiar de Chardens non-stop evolution theory. An universal development mechanism of unlinear thermodynamics. An evolution unlinearity. A paradox of the causality and the unit development line. A principle Not a step back as generalisation of the Paulis ban in physics and the Gekkels law in biology. Development as the transition from being to being obliged. An antropic principle. Development as a transition from a possible to the actual. From a form to an information the Aristotles Natures staircase and its modern physical and philosophic interpretation. (A.A.Silin. Conception of development in natural sciences and philosophy // Philosophic researches. 1997. ¹2. Pp. 137-151, in Russian.)
ROUND TABLE TIME AND MATHEMATICS. Principal V. V. ARISTOV (). The main aim of the subject being discussed consists in summarising and determining the perspectives of relation between the categories of time and number (and other mathematical notions) as the basic concepts of the philosophical thought and the instrumental knowledge. It is expected that the discussion will be largely the problem than the review in form. Attempts will be considered which concerning the application of modern mathematical notions for new constructions (models) of time. On the other hand, the study of time could stimulate some areas of mathematics. Besides, consideration of mathematics as a language is important because time is already treated in terms of the available formal apparatus. The following topics are presented for discussion: a joint genesis of the notions of time and number; relation between different mathematical and temporal notions in the structure of the different philosophical systems; sense and image of the time in the structure of the mathematical apparatus itself where, in fact, the notion of time is not in hand; the inner time in the system theory, a question on a non-traditional mathematical tool adopted for description of forms of the processes; models of time and algorithms; the traditional one-dimensional time, causality and mathematical structures of the order; the multi-parametric time and the geometry of time; modern mathematical structures, the category and functor apparatus; the discrete and vector time; a search for the connection between axioms of mathematics and physics on the basis of the constructions of space-time. It is possible to make new suggestions for discussion topics.
"GEOCHEMIST AND PHILOSOPHER V. I. VERNADSKY". I. A. KHASANOV.
V. V. NISOVTSEV. "CHANGE OF VIEWPOINTS ON THE NATURE OF TIME ON TIME OF SCIENTIFIC PARADIGM CHANGE". In lecture is adduced an opinion of authorities of a classical science about time and simultaneity. A level of investigation of the problem is valued. Sociopsychological and scientific reasons of actualisation of time problem in XX century are discussed. The beginning of given methodological shift is caused by unreasonable ontologization of scientific tools, including the time is motivate. At the analysis of space-time of physicists it has applied culturological approach. It has shown the essence of modern physical paradigm are caused by spirit of time, by democratisation of a science in particular.
ROUND TABLE CONCEPT OF ENTROPY IN STRUCTURE OF TIME MODELS. Principal A. V. KOGANOV (). It is supposed to consider an entropy from different points of view: as mathematical combinatorial concept, as physical parameter of processes, as essence which has substantional carriers, as factor of an irreversibility of time. The special attention will be paid to entropy as potential of an information and basis of formation of the physical worlds structures. The problem of the absoluteness and/or relativity of an irreversibility of growth of an entropy will be considered. Particularly, the model of an entropy in theory of dynamic systems will be considered, where it plays a role of an invariant distinguishing processes with such accuracy as possibility of code conversion of one in to other. In this aspect the growth of an entropy is a conditional sequence method of its measurement, but in the observable process irreversible modifications do not happen. The problem of connection of an entropy growth with quantum model of physical world particles interactions is basic.
"ETHNOLOGIST AND HISTORIC L. N. GUMILEV". V. L. MOKHNACH.
V. V. KARACHAROVSKY. "TIME AS HISTORICAL PROCESS CATEGORY". Time is considered as fundamental category of historical research. The term of Historical Time is defined. Time problem opinions evolution is discussed in connection with progress of historical and philosophical ideas. The basic qualitative features of Time are analysed in terms of different historical and philosophical systems.
ROUND TABLE "A NATURE OF TIME" . Principal A. P. LEVICH (). During explication attempts, as it frequently happens, the representation of time is splitted at least on two concepts: "nature" of time and modes of its measurement. The "nature" of time is understood as existence of mechanisms of origin of modifications and origin of new in the World. Apparently, two opposite points of view on an essence of time will meet in the discussion: 1) if a variability of the World is not a time, then time is only convention, construction of human thought, perceptual-cognitive essence, noumenon, illusion and 2) time is reality; the natural representative of time exists and so it is ontological essence, phenomenon, physical object. "The Natural representative" is understood as some process, occurrence or "carrier" in the material world, which properties could be identified or corresponded with properties assigned to time phenomenon. The first point of view is inherent in gravitate relational concepts of time, and the second one in substational concepts of time. Apologists of the first point of view will meet the necessity to comment the connection of nominal time with such realities as becoming, irreversibility of processes, events order ... Apologists of the second part of view should present "candidates" for the fundamental process representing time; to explain how this process is generating the properties of phenomenal time; to offer operational methods for the reproduced measurement of any characteristics of the process which differ from its basic manifestation current of our time. The special place in the discussion can be taken by attempts to present points of view indicated above as not alternative, but as complementary to each other. The discussion will help to illuminate a wide spectrum of existing viewpoints.
"PHILOSOPHER YU. B. MOLCHANOV". I. A. AKCHURIN.
V. E. CHERNILEVSKY. "GENERAL BIOLOGICAL APPROACH TO DECISION OF AGEING PROBLEM". Consideration with generally biological principles of the nature of ageing and self-renovation of the organisms of different species allows: to establish the general causes those processes, connected with the sexual process and the presidence of germ plasma in the cytoplasm of the organisms cells; the universation of ageing and self-renovation in nature; the existence of unageing organisms; the conditions of ageing and unageing; common for various species the influences delay, stop and reversibility of organisms. The life prolongation of the mammals in several times is reached by the periodic reduction of metabolism by means the creation of artificial hypobiosis without the fall of bodys temperature. The method of human life prolongation based on special techniques.
ROUND TABLE TIME AND QUANTUM MECHANICS. Principal I. M. DMITRIEVSKY. Modern physics and particularly quantum mechanics contain problems (paradox of stationary quantum electron orbits in atom, defiance of the law of an energy preservation for virtual particles, defiance of the law of preservation of parity in weak interactions, etc.) unsolved until now. The combined analysis of unsolved problems of both quantum mechanises and study of time can appear mutually useful. It is offered to conduct exchange of the judgements about such common and concrete problems (and also about other problems proposed by the participants of the discussion) as follows: time and space in a quantum mechanics is it form or environment for existence of a substance? How are time and causality connected? How are indeterminism of a quantum mechanics and "a stream of time" or reluctant radiation stream connected? Whether a reversibility of time in a quantum mechanics and one-directedness of time by are compatible or not? Whether the mathematical and physical models in natural sciences are identical?
"PHYSICIST A. S. PREDVODITELEV". V. P. KAZARIAN.
V. V. SMOLIANINOV. "WHAT IS A CLOCK?" Known in the special theory of relativity "clock paradox" is a consequence of the Minkowskis chronogeometry, which is based on a theoretical postulate of a constancy of the velocity of light. A postulate method for construction of the physical theory A.Einstein has named as fundamental. An alternative method is the constructive method, based on the comparative analysis of the invariants for different models of clocks. The last method allows us to construct the different models of chronogeometry. In particular, we can have a model, in which is fair the postulate of a constancy of the velocity of light, but there are no effects of lengths contraction and of time-dilatation.
"AERO-CONSTRUCTOR AND PHYSICIST R. OROS DI BARTINI". P. G. KUZNIETSOV.
I. N. GANSWIND. "THE SPACE-TIME IN THE FIELD OF GREAT PHYSICAL THEORIES OF 20TH CENTURY". The space-time structure which are inherent in the four great physical theories, relativity, general relativity, quantum theory, quantum field theory. From geometry to topology in the basic concept to establish a link between space, time and number. Mass, energy and time. Do the patterns of relativity, general relativity and the quantum theory have any common view of the nature of space and time?
"MATHEMATICIAN AND PHILOSOPHER V. V. NALIMOV". V. L. TATKO.
A. P. LEVICH. "EMERGENCE OF PARADIGM OF OPEN, TIME GENERATED WORLD" . In the closed isolated Universe degenerated systems would seem to prevail. Yet everyday life makes it evident that the qualities of Nature have nothing to do with the qualities of an equilibrium system, and astronomy data show the same refers to the whole tremendous realm of the Universe exposed to our observation. Basic theories of Natural History lack of discussing the problem dealing with nature and qualities of Time, since Time is regarded as a primordial and indefinable notion. Fruitful discussion on the problem of Time is possible under producing evidence of its construction. Assuming the World is open and treating Time as identical with flows, with respect to which the World is open, allows many troublesome problems in exploring Time to have turned to trivial ones. For example, such as becoming, unreversibility, continuity, dimentionality of Time etc. It naturally hence intensifies the unsolved problems and gives rise to new ones which we shall have to solve by the third millennium. (A.P.Levich. Generation Flows and a Substantional Model of Space-Time // Gravitation and Cosmology. 1995. V.1. ¹3. Pp.237-242. A.P.Levich. Time as variability of natural systems: ways of quantitative description of changes and creation of changes of modification by substantial flows // On the Way to Understanding the Time Phenomenon: the Constructions of Time in Natural Science. Part 1. Interdisciplinary Time Studies. World Scientific. 1995. Pp.149-191. A.P.Levich. Time in being of natural systems // The analysis of systems on a threshold XXI centuries. Moscow. Intelligence. 1997. Pp. 38-59, in Russian. A.P.Levich. Is time substantion or relation?.. A refusal from a contraposition of the concepts // Philosophical researches. 1998. No.1. Pp. 7-21, in Russian. A.P.Levich. The natural representative of time flow: becoming as a change of an amount of the substation // Proceedings of the Institute of philosophy, RAS. 1999, in Russian.)
"PALAEONTOLOGIST AND NATURE-PHILOSOPHER S. V. MEYEN". Yu. V. TCHAIKOVSKY.
V. L. TATKO. "TIME MEASUREMENT AND CONCEPTIONS OF TIME IN EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY AND NEUROSCIENCE IN THE FACE OF MILLENNIUM". 1) Timeless neuroscience. A person frozen by measurements. Psychological diagnostic in static. Developments outside the Time. 2) Experimental observation of inner and external Time. Time interval assessment by the subject: the false paradigms. Individual experience of subjective time flow. 3) Alternative approaches 1. Subjective Time as the events scaling. Matiere et Memoire (following Henry Bergson). Time and Perception from the point of micro-genesis hypothesis. Chronometry of dreams. Renee Descartes: the countdown point. 4) The studies of personality in the Soviet Union as the outlined issue. An experience of psycho-physiological paradox solution by Ivan P. Pavlovs school. The reformation of the doctrine. 5) Alternative approaches 2. Cognitive psychology (J. Bruner, U. Naisser, R. Solso). The significance of Prigogones self-organisation theory and Hakens synergetics for psychology of the XXI Century. 6) Philosophical allusions. The reproducibility paradigms versus evolution. The ideographic and nomothetic collapses. The Causality (following Mario Bunge).
1700. Opening of the exhibition OLD MOSCOW by the painter V. KACHANOV.
1800. About Importance. V. KACHANOV.
A. V. OLESKIN. "CLASSIFICATION OF THE SCIENCE-FICTION LITERATURE DEALING WITH THE TIME". One section of the popular scientific book At the Cross-roads of Infinity by the prominent Russian physicist Parnov was entitled A Long Disgression about the Time Flowing Backwards. Similarly, this presentation attempts to sum up the ideas from science-fiction works belonging to various epochs and trends, whose authors take liberties with the Time. For example, they make the Time flow from the future to the past, create crevices in it (where their personages get hopelessly trapped), and even bring the Time into a state of complete chaos (one science-fiction writer claims in his work that a phone call can result in connection two Time moments, not just two points in space). An attempt is also made to relate the ideas presented in the science-fiction literature to equally crazy concepts of physicists & cosmologists concerning black and white holes, twisting the Space so that it assumes the shape of a Moebius sheet, etc.
PRELIMINARY MEETING OF THE THIRD MILLENNIUM.