Autumn semester of 1996
Topic of the semester: TIME. LIFE. SOCIETY
S. A. TITOV. "LIVING TIME". The understanding of time and judging about it include many paradoxes that usually avoid our attention. It is remarkable that equally paradoxical is the explanation of the phenomenon of life. It appears that these paradoxes are caused by the paradigm of classical science, which practically simultaneously excluded from the field of its consideration both the problem life and the problem of time. To approach the solution of both problems in a new manner, it is necessary, giving up the Occam principle, to multiply the entities, i.e., to introduce new objective categories, in particular, expediency. It then turns out that time is closely connected with living systems and apparently cannot be imagined out of them. (S.A. Titov. The problem of context in living systems. // "Obshchestvennye Nauki i Sovremennost'" (Social Sciences and Contemporaneity), 1996, No. 3, 134-144)
A. E. AKIMOV. "THEORETICAL FOUNDATION OF MEDICO-BIOLOGICAL PHENOMENOLOGY". Physical models of torsion fields, making it possible to describe their action upon living matter, are considered. We study such phenomena as the memory of water, the action mechanism of homeopathic preparations, water magnetization, the mechanism of action of electromagnetic radiation, upon acupuncture points, the problems of Voll's diagnostics, as well as the physical foundations of medicinal testing and the physical essence of biogeopathogenic zones. We discuss the problems of struggle against the negative influence of torsion radiation from different sources. We indicate the reasons connected with the consequences of psycho-physical actions. (Collected works "Consciousness and the Physical World, Moscow, Yakhtsmen, 1995)
A. V. MOSKOVSKY. "EVOLUTION WITHOUT SELECTION OR SELECTION BEFORE EVOLUTION?" Like the spectrum of elementary particles, the ensemble of the forms of life has its roots in the properties of the physical vacuum. The evolution process is not creation of new forms of life from chaotic mutations, but a consecutive passage of a ladder of possibilities, revealing of something that already exists. (Preprint No. 77, MNTTs VENT, Moscow, 1995)
A. E. SEDOV. "GENES AND GENETICS IN THE TIME FLOW". Various "molecular clocks" in the DNA of genomes became a basis for the evolution schemes of tax of all ranks in various groups of organisms. However, the course of these "clocks" has not been always uniform, and the rates strongly varied, in genetic texts - both in semantically different ones and in homologous ones that represent different large philetic branches. This causes intertaxon "sweep shifts" of the ranges of taxonomic ranks and di- vergence datings under study. Therefore, the "clocks" are chosen empirically for concrete problems, and usually the results of geno- and phenosystematics are mutually complementary. The "clocks" are comparatively rare, only the most "neutral" components of the genomes that coexist with the "selectionistic" and "nomogenetic" ones. The genomes are "pluralistic": simultaneously they contain different DNA-texts whose evolution is explainable by different evolutionary conceptions or wasn't explained yet by any of them. The speeds and ways of evolution of these texts are affected by hardly analyzable system phenomena: intra- and intergenic evolution, genome architectonics, evolution of phenotypes. Quasiuniform processes were temporally reiterated with the explosive ones. Phenetically it has been revealed in the changes of prevailed biocenoses and taxa, and genetically in changes of "fashionable" mutations, explosive transpositions, chromosome architectonics reorganization. Similar processes take place in the evolution of genetics as a cognitive system. Accumulation of the number of objects under study, levels of analysis, data and conceptions, reiterates in time with changes of paradigms and cognitive models. This was reflected in the temporal changes of "fashions" on metaphors accepted as working professional terms - from physicalistic to cybernetic and linguistic ones, and quite re- cently to animizing ones. Thus, in the evolution of both genomes themselves and the knowledge about them, the measurable cumulative, quantitative aspects of time (the "measures of changes") do combine with the qualitative, image aspects ("portraits of epochs"); they do not pass to each other but coexist in our knowledge.
A. F. MARYENKO. "THE WORLD INHABITED BY SUBJECTS AND ITS TIME". The world out of a Subject, the one that people call lifeless, seems to physics to be the whole set of mostly regular motions of "uniform" nature. The accumulating complex of motions - the "history" of the lifeless world - is believed to be continuously growing, and its increments - the physical time intervals - are measured by the number of oscillations of stable oscillators, or clocks. The structure equality of energy and time in the action parameter, which is minimized on the trajectories of free uniform motion, inspires one to seek the conditions for their physical interchangeability. Such an interchange between time and energy looks very tempting in the sense of wealth production for subjects' life-support. Traditionally, physics identifies itself with the Demiurge, considering its knowledge to be objective. This reveals itself in paradoxes arising because of the non-distinguished levels of unified models in the knowledge blocks of the collective Subject - the professional community of physicists. Advice from aside is commonly not comprehended for social reasons, very important ones from the viewpoint of preserving and widening positions in the public division of labour. There are many paradoxes in the description of time, the parameter of linearized history of the whole set of motions of the lifeless world. The multi-level nature of models in the knowledge of the Subjects, if realized and taken into account, could perhaps help to overcome these paradoxes.
A. M. MAURINS. "INTRODUCTION TO TEMPORALISM". Discussion of the textbook
M. D. KHOKHLOV. "THE TIME OF ETHNIC GROUPS, ETHNOGENESIS THEORY AND THE MODERN STATE OF THE ANTHROPOSPHERE". The Chechen crisis and the Arab conquests of the 7th-8th centuries, the Iraqui-American war and the campaigns of Alexander of Macedonia - it is hard to believe that there can be a unified theory explaining these processes. However, those who know the works of L.N. Gumiliov, would not treat such a conclusion so sceptically. L.N. Gumiliov's works have introduced the notion of the ethnosphere and described the ethonogenesis as the process of ethnic development beyond the frames of a homeostatic state. At the present stage of the development of science it became possible not only to prove the theoretical argument by deductive forecasts of processes (in this way a new passionary incitement was discovered), but also to comprehend the ethnogenesis as a process that reflects the time of an ethnos. There has also appeared an opportunity to pass from studying the ethnosphere to studying the anthroposphere and to follow the differentiation of time in this shell of the planet, with a purpose to not only explain the present situation, but also to try to predict its development.