Autumn semester of 2002
Topic of the semester: NATURE OF TIME
An overview of talks at the session "PHYSICIST'S VIEW OF TIME" of NATO ADVANCED RESEARCH WORKSHOP "THE NATURE OF TIME: GEOMETRY, PHYSICS AND PERCEPTION (May 2002, Tatranska Lomnica)". S. M. KOROTAEV ().
V. P. KAZARYAN (). “TIME AS A CULTURE PHENOMENON”. The attempt is made to emphasize the influence of a culture character on the interpretation of time. The culture is understood, first of all, as the world of senses and values in which a man lives. Just it is, in many respects, the source of the man's ideas about himself, other people, the nature, and the universe. It is possible that roots of temporality are in the mentioned world.
An overview of talks at the session "MATHEMATICAL APPROACHES TO THE CONCEPT OF TIME" of NATO ADVANCED RESEARCH WORKSHOP "THE NATURE OF TIME: GEOMETRY, PHYSICS AND PERCEPTION (May 2002, Tatranska Lomnica)". V. V. ARISTOV ().
A. L. KRUGLY (). “AN ORIENTED GRAPH AS A MODEL OF DISCRETE SPACE-TIME”. Suppose the universe is an oriented acyclic graph. An oriented graph is a graph with oriented edges. An oriented acyclic graph is a graph without closed oriented sequences. If we go from any vertex in the direction of edges we can't come back. Such model is named causal set. The idea of the causal set is the result of the investigation of the foundations of the Riemannian structure of space-time in general relativity. Vertexes and edges are elementary objects and have no internal structure. All properties of vertexes and edges are connected only with their place in the graph of the universe. Space-time, fields, particles are the methods of the description of the graph's properties. Any physical object is the finite part of this graph. The properties of the whole graph of the universe are not considered in this report and only special kind of graphs is considered. This is the finite oriented acyclic binary graph. The graph is the binary graph if any vertex has two incident incoming edges and two incident outgoing edges. Only connected graphs are considered. The stochastic dynamics and mathematical machinery are developed. The model of elementary particle is considered. (Krugly, A. L. The model of discrete space-time, Monolog, Moscow. 1998. - 56 p. [in Russian]; Krugly, A. L. The model of dynamics of discrete space-time, Monolog, Moscow. 2000. - 88 p. [in Russian]; Krugly, A.L. Discrete space-time// International Journal of Theoretical Physics. - 2000. - 39(4). - Pp. 975-984; Krugly, A.L. Causal set dynamics and elementary particles// International Journal of Theoretical Physics. - 2002. - 41(1). - Pp. 1-37.)
“LUNISOLAR CALENDAR OF ANCIENT RUSSIA”. A. V. ZHURAVEL ().
S. V. CHUDOV (). “EVOLUTION AND SELF-ORGANIZATION”. New mathematical approaches to the description of complex systems evolution - memetics and metaecology. Replicators. Principle of convariant reduplication. Population growth dynamics - linear and nonlinear. The logistical equation. The two approaches to the struggle for existence - Malthusian-statistical and synecological. Principle of concurrent exclusion. Emergence of coenosis and metasystem transition. Rules of coenosis evolution and Haken's submission principle. Stability of coenoses. Self-regulation, self-structuring and self-organization. Emergence of types in evolving ensembles of systems.
V. ABRAMOVIC (). “INTRODUCTION INTO THE SCIENCE OF TIME”. Ontology of Time (This is the new branch of Metaphysics where Time is seen as a Being; Ontology of Time is based on four notions only: Continuity, Continuum, Discontinuity and Discontinuum). The foundations of Time Mathematics (Time view on mathematical operations and objects as are zero, one, number, point, radius, angle, including the operations. Criterion applied: rigorous physical interpretation of every mathematical notion, symbol and formula. As is to be shown former is possible only over Time). Time Physics ("Time generates Space" - the consequences in Physics with example of Quantum mechanics: derivation of Niels Bohr's "first postulate" and explanation of the main quantum number (discrete space) and its square (synchronicity law)).
“QUANTUM AND TIME”. A. YU. SEVALNIKOV ().
T. P. LOLAEV (). “A FUNCTIONAL CONCEPT OF TIME”. According to the author's concept of objectively real (in his terms), functional time, the latter is formed by concrete material objects and processes as a result of successive change of the qualitatively new states. Consequently, if there is no quality change, there is no time either. As time is formed by concrete material objects, processes (each object is a process) it is always finite. In this connection eternity cannot be infinite time. From the author's point of view, functional time is always present as it is derived from material objects and processes, while they exist and function as such. Such an approach leads to misinterpretation of the time current and the problem of time direction. Time current appears in the functional concept as presences following each other. Besides, from the functional concept one can understand that the time has no its own features, but specifically reflects the features of a process generating it. It cannot neither slow down nor increase nor stop. (T. P. Lolaev. The Finite and the Infinite: A New view on the problem; T. P. Lolaev. Time as a function of a biological system; T. P. Lolaev. Time as process function.)
An announcement of the future report “THE KANTIAN CONCEPT OF TIME AND THE MODERN QUANTUM THEORY: A PROBLEM OF EXISTENCE OF THE UNIVERSE”. K. A. MIKHAILOV ().
A. M. ZASLAVSKY (). “A SYSTEM OF TIME”. In the report, the hypothesis of system of time and its intrinsic worlds is stated and analyzed. The general system of time (from the point of view of the external observer) represents the linear order relation on the abstract set of events mapped to some moments of his (observer's) own time. For the internal observer of the system of time, this set is an indefinable set of events identified with the set of all moments of time in his system. Thus, the observer is considered as a subsystem of the system of time, as the unidirectional automatic device with memory. It is shown, that these and some additional common reasons are sufficient for a derivation of the basic laws of geometry, kinetics, thermodynamics, kinematics, dynamics, and field theory of the physical intrinsic world of the system of time. Moreover, these laws are similar to laws of our world. The results of research of the mathematical transformations, which are called "supervisions", for the transition from the internal observer to external one and vice versa are given.
An overview of "KRONOSCOPE. JOURNAL FOR THE STUDY OF TIME. V.1. 2001". I. N. GANSVIND.
N. H. ROZOV. “A BUFFER PHENOMENON AND A TRANSITION TO CHAOS”. The buffer phenomenon is observed in mathematical models of distributed oscillating systems. It consists in the following: for any positive integer, it is possible to choose the system parameters in such a way that the system will have a given number of stable oscillating (in time) modes. This phenomenon can be interpreted as one of the ways in transiting to chaos, which is directly connected with the nature of time.
A presentation of the new book “L. N. LUBINSKAYA, S. V. LEPILIN. PHILOSOPHICAL PROBLEMS OF TIME IN THE CONTEXT OF INTERDISCIPLINARY EXPLORATIONS. ĚOSCOW, PROGRESS-TRADITSIA, 2002”. L. N. LUBINSKAYA.
L. A. GREBEN' (). “IDEAS OF THE TIME AND FREEDOM IN THE PHILOSOPHY OF HENRI BERGSON AND THEIR IMPORTANCE FOR CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOTHERAPY”. Based on the ideas of a prominent French scientist, philosopher and psychologist Henri Bergson (1859-1941), we will present our model of space-time. In his doctorate theses "An Essay on the Immediate Data of Consciousness" Bergson views time as a duration and then differentiates two forms of such a duration - the quality time, in which different states of consciousness occur, and the quantity time (or auxiliary space), on which they are projected. We show that this differentiation allows building an ontological model of the space-time and reducing it into the area of psychotherapy. A psychotherapist deals with the pain and suffering of an unique soul rather than with a generalized statistical client. The proposed model allows however to deal with such "holes" in consciousness describing, analysing and forecasting these phenomena on scientific grounds rather than shifting them into the areas of art, mysticism and psychiatry. The work presents a typology of possible ways of realization by the individual to the intentions of his existence and personal freedom, typology of human relations and therapeutically strategies. Many notions, which emerged initially in the philosophy and physics (such as specification (turning the time into a space like category), temporization of space, etc.) find their psychological correlates. For example, there are terms like "complete time", "place of the Other", "con-temporary person". The ideas of Bergson and Whitehead that the basis of freedom in the universe is the causal independence of simultaneous events get an opportunity of effective practical use in the psychotherapy. Bergson claimed that human considers the entire universe as a space, that is, the intellect aspires to ignore coming into being and to analyse the world in terms of static categories. We continue this thought: "People feel the universe as time, that is, they try to ignore the permanence and to synthesize the world in the process of whole experience".
A presentation of the new book “I. A. KHASANOV. TIME: NATURE, UNIFORMITY, MEASUREMENT. ĚOSCOW, PROGRESS-TRADITSIA, 2001”. I. A. KHASANOV ().
A. V. DUBINKIN (). “THE SUBJECT-DYNAMIC APPROACH TO THE PROBLEM OF SPACE-TIME”. The scientific approach to the study of reality, objective by the nature, faces considerable difficulties while trying to unriddle this reality. Thus, the objective nature of the quantum mechanical effect radically changes depending on the interpreting position of the observer. The subjective paradigm, used in the human sciences, takes into account the dependence of the real world on the transforming human activity. But in this case we face the danger of reducing the objective knowledge because of the multitude of the interpreting models. It is required a study which can on the one hand elicit and examine the modules of non-object nature (that have nevertheless objective features in their content) and on the other hand explain the phenomenon of the subjective interpretation. The space-time is exactly an object with the nature that cannot be reduced only to the phenomenal content. The methodological principle that can be used in the study of such objects is the structural-holistic approach. In the scientific study of the reality its holistic nature hides behind the integrative essence of the examined phenomena and processes, while in the nonscientific study - behind the system organization of subjectivity (activity, consciousness, culture, etc.). The study of the space-time phenomenon in the tideway of the conception of commensurable holiness helps us to break away with a number of actual problems, including the problems of dual nature (interpretation) of quantum mechanical objects, as well as allows solving the problem of the observer's activity.
“SPACE AND TIME IN REPRESENTATION OF ERWIN SCHRÖDINGER”. YU. A. YERSHOV ().
L. A. SHTOMPEL (). “CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL SENSE OF TIME”. The basis for reflections about time is the evidence of changes in nature and society. The time is understood not only as the relation between durations and sequences of events, but also as " figure of intervals", interruptions of lasting processes. Intervals, the points of interruptions fix the beginning and end of event. In the mystical form long ago the Aztecs realized not so much the importance of " lasting" time, as that of interruptions of time in a holiday called "tying years together ". This holiday of the Aztecs fixes in a religious calendar the passage through a meridian in midnight, it happens one time per 52 years. The holiday of "transition" meant the end of interaction of two various calendar systems. The information and axiological concept of time allows to investigate the values of culture in temporary aspect as the major starting point of transition of one cultural systems to another. At such approach the time is considered as cultural value having various senses and meanings, which are fixed as a result of human activity and simultaneously act as an active form allowing to structure socium in a new way (for example, with the help of a new calendar). The sense of time is not arbitrarily attributed to the separate temporary moments certain meanings, but contents expressing correlation of real historical events with values of the given culture, with movement of human soul and soul of the world. As in language, where reference connections between sign and meaning can not be straight, and at interpretation of temporary concepts, calendar systems, rites, rituals (also dated to the certain moments of time) the area of " predefined senses" is a mediated part. In the same chronological time the system has a spectrum of various possible states. Therefore the sense of socio and cultural time expresses the relation of the subject not only to expansion of the actual objective process, but also to the "fan" of opportunities of this process. In the time of culture mutual concordance of social and cultural and individual and personal worlds occurs. The structure of social and cultural time represents integrative formation of the spheres embraced into each other: time of person and personal relations (microsphere), time of social institutes (macrosphere), time of history of culture (megatime). The arising information society has a number of new temporal features. With the development of society not only characteristics of objective social time vary, but also the ways of orientation in it, its conceptional schemes. One of the most urgent problems is whether the man is capable to create time and if yes, in what borders? Time is not lined up near the process, fixing a sequence and duration of its events and stages, but is set by a choice of a way, realization of the certain opportunity from the set of opportunities, new rhythm, etc.
R. BUCCHERI (Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica - Sezione di Palermo Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Ugo La Malfa 153, 90146 Palermo, Italy). “TIME AND THE DICHOTOMY SUBJECTIVE/OBJECTIVE. THE ENDO-PHYSICAL POINT OF VIEW”. We, the human beings, aim at fully understanding and controlling the world where we live. The processes of collecting information from the observed phenomena occur in the subjective time of each individuals who communicate to each other their own views. Intercommunication between individuals mediates among single representations and tends to construct an "objective view", agreed within the human society. During the last centuries this process of intercommunication has been made extremely efficient by Science and its use of Mathematics but the generally adopted scientific paradigms have often been raised to the rank of absolute concepts, risking to strip them of their evolving human nature. One of the results of this attitude is the implicitly adopted exo-physical perspective where humans are considered capable of reaching a complete detachment from the interacting environment. Therefore, the descriptions produced by science and especially those expressed in mathematical terms have often been seen as independent of the human standpoint and subjectivity considered a phenomenological issue, not worth of scientific attention. It is here stressed that subjectivity remains the primary feature of the process of understanding, process occurring within the consciousness of each individual, although expressed by the use of the agreed "objective" tools. It is also argued that the exo-physical perspective does not fit with the actual situation of humans imbedded in the world and heavily interacting with it, which may risks to rise expectations that cannot be satisfied. It is shown that within the endo-physical perspective the dichotomy subjective-objective may conceptually be overcome. The endo-physical point of view implies, in fact, a particular attention to the elements of subjectivity of all our observations. Subjective views may find a consistent place in Science if the latter starts more concretely thinking in terms of an endo-physical nature of our theories, as subjective constructs owing their objectivity only to the searched agreement of their validity within the strict context of the human society. The degree of objectivity will obviously depend on the degree of evolution of the common language implying that some communicated aspects or characteristics, from individuals or common only to a restricted number of individuals, may not be soon recognized as "objective". Concerning time, the way it is "felt" by humans, like any other aspect of the perception of natural phenomena, shows individual characteristics whose differences (both "normal" and "anomalous") cannot be disregarded. However, intercommunication within society by the use of the agreed common language, included the use of mathematical tools, gradually reveals its "objective" characteristics. It follows that looking for a definite relationship between the "external" (or "objective") time of physics and the "internal" time of our senses sounds fully reasonable. Within the endo-physical paradigm, finally, the intelligibility of nature acquires a radically different meaning from that implied by the classical physics with the determinism and the block universe. Not a single unified theory of everything and a laplacian a-temporal possibility to "see" simultaneously past, present and future but a finite set of theories, each valid within certain approximation limits, concurring to an high level of knowledge and control of nature and leaving consistent room to unpredictability of the future and the individual feeling of the free will.
“M. HEIDEGGER: TIME AND BEING”. I. N. GANSVIND.
S. E. SHNOL (). “NEW RESULTS IN STUDY OF MACROSCOPIC FLUCTUATIONS”.