A RETROSPECTIVE OVERVIEW OF PROBLEMS CONNECTED WITH
SOCIAL TIME BY SOVIET EDITIONS OF 1980-1990
Not many books edited in the last decade are directly
devoted to social time (Yakovlev 1980;Akhundov 1982/1986;
Barg 1984; Gaidis 1986; Artyomov 1987; Serov 1989, 1990;
Gumilyov 1979/1989). However, there are studies close to
social subjects in historical chronology (Fomenko 1990),
general system theory (Sarychev 1981; Kandrashina et al.
1989; Levich 1989 a,b; Zhirmunski and Kuzmin 1990), logics
(Ishmuratov 1981), psychology of personality (Golovakha and
Kronik 1984; Bragina and Dobrokhotova 1988; Nalimov 1989) and
philosophy (Kazaryan 1980; Yarskaya 1980; Soldatov
1981;Akhundov 1982/1986; 1982; 1985; Kanke 1984;
"Prostranstvo i Vremia" 1984; Gachev 1987; Zharov 1987;
Trubnikov 1987; Kosareva 1988; I.Molchanov 1988; Suchkova
1988; Kardasheva-Ulyakhina 1990; Yu.Molchanov 1990). The
purpose of this overview is to indicate the intrinsic
connection between the problems of social time and the ideas
both from closely related disciplines and from natural
Trends in social time studies
Social time is traditionally understood as the time of
human existence and human activity. In the studies of the
eighties the tendencies showed themselves for deepened,
causal comprehension of the subject:
- The scientists (Serov 1990) gradually go further and
further from the understanding of social time as a resource
possessed by social objects and a measure of expenses in time
budget studies. They also abandon the conception of "the time
factor" which, in its uncritical and speculative
understanding, was endowed with a role of an almost mystic
objective factor, impersonal and acting as though outside the
specific conditions of social life.
- A world outlook is appearing which overcomes the
traditional absolute opposition between nature and society,
existence and consciousness; attempts are being undertaken to
create a bridge between the time of society and the time of
nature (Gumilyov 1979/1989).
- The ways of formation of the time concepts in
different cultures of the world have been thoroughly analysed
and the results generalized (Akhundov 1982/1986); it has
been shown how the evolution of social consciousness gives
rise to that of time concepts creating such conceptual models
of time as the oscillatory, cyclic, spiral and linear
- A decisive transition has been carried out from
synchronous to diachronous studies both in purely
sociological work (repeated questions, cohort analysis,
constant-contingent samples, introspection - Gaidis 1986) and
in much wider frames of the problems of nature and society
genesis and interaction (for instance, N.K.Serov's "process
treatment" - Serov 1990).
- More and more often social time acquires a separate
ontological treatment as the contents and measure of
generalized movement of social systems, by analogy with the
physical, biological, geological, geographic and other times
used in natural sciences (Levich 1989). Together with social
time ontologization, there is a growing tendency to take into
account psychological, subconscious, language roots of
scientific reconstructions of time images (Akhundov 1985).
- Attempts have been made, although not too numerous,not
to confine oneself to the description of social system
changing phenomena but to find fundamental laws governing
these changes.An understanding emerged that it is
inconceivable to search these laws without an instrument
measuring the changes and without explication of specific
time properties for the systems studied (Levich
1989).Therefore rather often questions are risen about
constructive characteristics of the specific social time: its
hierarchy properties, multicomponentness, irreversibility
(anisotropy), duration, sequence of its instants,
inhomogeneity and non-uniformity of its course (Yakovlev
1980). The necessity of "social chronometry" was realized
(Artyomov 1987), i.e., that of creating special "clocks" to
measure social time.
Properties of social time and social chronometry
V.P.Yakovlev (1980) introduced the hierarchy of social
times: the time of an individual, the time of a generation,
historical time. According to V.P.Yakovlev, social time turns
out to be three-dimensional and this property is determined
by the multicomponent nature of human activity. The "length"
is the duration of individual life in astronomical time units
and the irreversible succession of living cycle stages. The
"width" is an extensive quantity characterizing the quantity
and variety of the forms of human activity and the abundance
of an individual's connections with the surrounding world.
The "depth" is an intensive quantity determined by the level
and degree of involvedness of a person into his or her
activity. Multidimensionality of historical time was
emphasized by M.A.Barg (1984)while arguments in favour of
multidimensionality of individual time are systematically
reproduced by psychologists and biologists (Moiseyeva 1980,
1985; Golovakha and Kronik 1984; Mikhailovski 1989).
The problems of constructing specific clocks adequately
describing the processes of the corresponding subject fields
and, after this, constructing (instead of postulating) the
properties of time, manifest themselves certainly not only in
social studies. The most promising ways of solving such
problems are anticipated within general system theory. In one
of the system-theoretical approaches (Levich 1986, 1989 a)
time is treated as a synonym for changes in a certain system
and a clock as a way of measuring or parameterization of the
changes. It was suggested to unify the system variability by
postulating that it is possible to describe any change as a
superposition of substitutions of system elements at
different levels of its hierarchical structure. Such a
unification makes it possible to introduce substitutional
clocks suitable for a system of arbitrary nature: at
different levels of structure of a reference system one
should count the quantity of substituted elements. The system
substitutional time is multi component, discrete,
system-specific and non-uniform in its course. The
substitutional time construction creates an elementary object
for dynamic theories, a hierarchical, unclosed, open,
non-equilibrium one, suitable for description of object
fields of both natural-scientific and humanitarian knowledge.
Similar elements can also appear within theories based
on the Platonic picture of the world. One of such directions
is represented by Logos physics consistently developed in the
studies of S.V.Chesnokov (1982, 1987, 1990). From the
standpoint of Logos physics the world is a set of images
which can have both a material and a spiritual content. In
this theory time also turns out to be a synonym of
variability of many sense objects: the course of time is
determined by destruction of certain pairs of elementary
images and formation of other pairs.
The substitutional time construction is supported by
operational procedures of element counting in systems.
However, for complicated systems described by complicated
formal structures it appears necessary to generalize the
concept of quantity. One of such generalizations is the
functor method of structure comparison which unexpectedly
leads to the entropy time parameterization (Levich 1982, 1988,
1989 b). The entropy parameterization makes it possible to
formulate the extremality principle for natural systems,
generalizing the second law of thermodynamics to include open
and non-equilibrium systems. This principle enables one to
derive generalized system motion equations instead of
guessing them and, using the equations, natural system
evolution laws. I would like to mention one of the most
recent works (Kuznetsov 1990) where the second law of
thermodynamics serves as a prototype of a law of human
society development: the level of labour productivity is a
non- decreasing quantity in the course of humanity's history.
Psychological time of an individual
Individual time is apparently the time of consciousness,
not that of existence, however, essentially it is a social
phenomenon (Yakovlev 1980). Therefore sociologists should not
be indifferent to studies in the field of psychological time
and also the biological one.
In the cause-and-purpose conception of psychological
time (Golovakha and Kronik 1984) the latter is formed on the
ground of an individual's feeling of determinational
connections between the basic events of life. Side by side
with the causal determinacy of coming events by previous ones
(determination by the past), there exists determination by
the future, i.e., by purposes and projected results of life.
Causal and purpose connections are analytic units of personal
psychological time. A special method ("causometry") has been
developed for their empirical investigation. In causometry
there emerges a quantitative measure of individual time and
operational procedures appear which form psychological past,
present and future. This approach makes it possible to
understand the causes of possible divergence between the
physical and psychological times, it explains the mechanism
of experiencing psychological time extension and compression,
its multidimensionality and the phenomenon of psychological
rejuvenation of a person. A computer version of causometry
enables one to build chronological charts of a person's
A personality's individual time is also apparently
mediated by the brain functional asymmetry: the right
hemisphere functions in the present time supported by the
past while the left one functions in the present with an
appeal to the future (Bragina and Dobrokhotova 1981/1988).
A measure of a personality's psychological time can be
introduced in terms of the quantity of actions performed by
the person within a unit of astronomical time (Nalimov 1985,
1989). A person can change the rate of his intrinsic time
defined in this way quite consciously using sensor
deprivation (autotraining, meditation) in order to pass to
altered states of consciousness. Certainly the word "actions"
is used here to denote not only events "extrinsic" for the
personality but also changes in the state of consciousness
and impulses of semantic nature. Distinct definiteness of
senses and their great personal significance - that is what
accelerates the course of human time.
M.D.Akhundov (1982/1986, 1985) in his study of the
sources of physical space and time came to a conclusion valid
both for physical and for social knowledge, namely, that an
indispensable mediating link between the ordinary language
and the formal theoretical one is the empirical notion of
space and time. "It is also necessary to take into account
that the space and time imprinted in our language are not
fixed once and for ever but experience significant changes
with the development of our language and thinking... These
questions are very close to the psychological aspects of the
problem of space and time which begin to acquire more and
more urgency..." (Akhundov 1982, p.221).
The idea of a hardly exploratory role of human psychology
in the formation of scientific concepts is continued by
G.D.Gachev (1987, p.224): "... Space and Time are the forms
and categories of the Psycho-Cosmos anticipating the Logos of
mind... Between the Cosmos and Psyche there is a plot, a
language, a dialogue, mutual understanding and collusion -
behind the back of Logos, outside the mind."
Concluding the excursus into the studies of individual
social time, I would like to mention the construction of
social age which appeared in our literature (Gaidis 1986);
this construction includes biological, physiological,
psychological and material differences of individuals and
their family and professional cycles. The developments
concerning a person's biological age having a lengthy
pre-history (Voitenko and Poliukhov 1986; Pavlovski 1987;
Dubina and Orlova 1987) can turn out to be useful for the
construction of social age.
A bridge between social time and natural time
The frames of the overview make me pass from individual
time to the processes of historical time. The object of
greatest interest in social systems acting on the historical
scale, is an ethnos. It makes sense to appeal to the work
which gives not only new knowledge but is able to change the
reader's world outlook, i.e., possesses a quality very
unusual in the abundance of modern books. Although the first
edition of the book is marked by the year 1979, the readers
could really get acquainted with the work only by the second
edition of 1989 since the first edition was published only as
a deposited manuscript due to ideological censorship; it
got neither to libraries, nor to book trade, nor to
catalogues, nor to book surveys. We are speaking about
L.N.Gumilyov's (1979/1989) work "Ethnogeny and the Earth's
According to L.N.Gumilyov, the ethnos concept cannot be
reduced to either sociological, or biological, or geographic
phenomena. An ethnos is a natural phenomenon but it is not a
population or a sum total of equal individuals; it is a
system of individuals differing genetically and functionally
and includes also the products of their activity, i.e.,
technology. anthropogery landscape and cultural tradition.
Unlike the technosphere, the ethnosphere implies division of
human society connected not with social organizations (tribal
unions, feuds, states, theocracies, political parties,
philosophic schools, classes, estates, castes or
social-economic structures) but with languages, ideology and
culture, common origin and way of life. An ethnos is a
community of people appearing and decaying for a relatively
short time (about 1200-1500 years in any, even most
favourable conditions) but having in each case an original
structure, an unrepeatable behaviour stereotype and its own
rhythm of development. An ethnos has its own ages and
development stages changing according to natural laws for any
ethnos on the Earth. L.N.Gumilyov singled out the following
phases: the starting moment of birth, the rising phase, the
acmatic phase (that of maturity), the overtaxing phase, the
inertial phase, the obscuration phase and the memorial phase
(dispersion of an ethnos and its transformation to a relic).
Here is, for instance, L.N.Gumilyov's description of the
behaviour stereotype of the reactionary obscuration phase,
"twilight of an ethnos" (1989, p.419): "... there are people
uncreative and unindustrious, emotionally and mentally
defective but expressing rather high requirement to the life.
In heroic epochs of growth and self-display such individuals
have very little probability to survive. They are bad
soldiers, a null sort of workers, while criminal ways bring
them at severe times very quickly to a scaffold. However, at
mild civilization times, by common abundance of everything,
everyone can get a spare piece of bread and a woman.The
"life-lovers" (please forgive me such a neologism) begin to
propagate themselves unboundedly and, being "people of a new
mould", create their own imperative: "be the same as we are",
i.e., do not strive for anything which cannot be eaten or
drunk. Any kind of advance becomes something odious,
diligence is subject to mockery, joy of intelligence causes
fury. In art lowering of style occurs, in science original
works are supplanted by compilations, in public life
corruption becomes common, in the army soldiers make
officers and commanders obedient by the threat of revolt.
Everything is mercenary, there is nobody to believe, nobody
to rely upon; to conserve his power a government has to apply
robber-chief tactics: to suspect, trace and kill his
The order established at this stage.. can by no means be
called democratic... Abilities are not appreciated, their
absence is,ignorance instead of education, unscrupulousness
instead of firmness in opinions.
Different phases of ethnogeny are accompanied by
- 12 -
different sensations of time connected with different types
of dominating behaviour: passeism - continuation and
accumulation of past values; actualism - living by the
present day, embezzlement of inheritance; futurism - reality
of only dreams and, finally, statism - narrow-minded
ignorance of time.
The basic theme of L.N.Gumilyov's studies is directly
connected with the general problem of the nature of time and,
in particular, that of historical time. This theme is search
of causes of ethnogeny, i.e., causes of ethnos birth and
decline. The birth of an ethnos occurs at the expense of the
energy of a passionary impetus, all the subsequent
development is just expenditure and damping of this energy.
This is the kind of energy which exerts direct influence upon
human behaviour through their psychic sphere. Passionarity
(L.N.Gumilyov's term produced from Latin "passio", passion)
is an invincible aspiration for purposeful activity which is
always connected with environment change, either social or
natural. The energy of passionarity is that of the biospheric
living substance, the one described by V.I.Vernadski
(1863-1945) as biochemical energy. Passionarity is the
ability of an organism to absorb the environmental energy and
to produce it in the form of external work. Passionarity is
indicated by more active higher nervous processes compared
with those common for the species. In certain favourable
conditions the individuals endowed with passionarity commit
(and cannot help committing) deeds which, being summed, break
the inertia of tradition and initiate a new ethnos.
Passionarity is not an individual property, it is a group
one, since many passionaries are needed to manifest
Ethnogeny is the system's passionarity loss: "... the
ethnogeny starting moment is that of sudden appearance of a
certain number of passionaries and subpassionaries in a
population; the rising phase is that of an increasing number
of passionaries due to propagation or incorporation; the
acmatic phase is that of maximum passionaries' number; the
overtaxing phase is the one characterized by a sharp decrease
of their number, their ousting by subpassionaries; the
inertial phase is that of slow decrease of the number of
passionary individuals; the obscuration phase is that of
nearly total replacement of passionaries by subpassionaries
who, due to certain peculiarities of their mould, either ruin
the ethnos as a whole, or have too little time to ruin it
before invasion from outside. In the second case a relic is
formed consisting of harmonic individuals and entering the
biocoenosis of the inhabited region as the upper completing
link." (Gumilyov 1979/1989, p.270). The processes of
passionarity fall and rise have been never and nowhere fixed
in documentary sources because they are apparent only in vast
juxtapositions of characteristics of epochs and countries,
i.e., this can be done only with the means of ethnology and
L.N.Gumilyov's work is rather a rare example of a truly
system study of interaction of the social and natural forms
of matter motion. The passionarity doctrine is included into
the study only for filling the gap which had appeared due to
one-sided investigation of ethnogeny. It cannot replace the
teaching of primacy of social development in history, it can
just supplement it by natural-scientific data. Consciousness
turns out to be history's helm, not a motor.
A passionary impetus is preceded by a mutagenic moment
creating various displacements from the optimum. Irregularity
of the mutation process rate can sometimes explain some
creative energy pulsation phenomena (Golubovski 1988).
The passionarity impetus should have an energy supply;
since it seems not to be connected with terrestrial natural
and social conditions, its origin can be extraterrestrial.
L.N.Gumilyov finds some arguments showing that the source of
a passionary impetus is not only extraterrestrial but
originates "not from the Sun but from Galaxy's diffuse
energy..." In this aspect L.N.Gumiilyov's ethnogeny doctrine
shows clear connection with the views of the nature of time
which have appeared in system theory and astronomy.
Thus the substitutional approach mentioned before
introduces a general process of system element substitution
obligatory for all the natural systems. The problem of origin
of the overall process is solved in the following way: our
Universe is unisolated, open and non-equilibrium; the course
of time in the Universe is created by generating
substationary flows of pre-elements which cause alteration,
development of the world's objects and their
self-organisation (Levich 1989 a,b).
The idea of a generating flow is not new both in
philosophy and in natural science. There are grounds for
identifying the generating substationary flow with the "time
flow" introduced by Russian astronomer and naturalist
N.A.Kozyrev (1909-1983). According to N.A.Kozyrev, time is a
grandiose flow embracing all the material systems of the
Universe, and all the processes occurring in these systems
are sources feeding this overall flow (Kozyrev 1982, 1985;
N.A.Kozyrev's first papers on the "active" properties of time
appeared in 1948). N.A.Kozyrev's flow creates the course of
time, forms the causal connections in the world, provides
additional energy sources for astronomical objects and
removes the otherwise unavoidable homogeneous equilibrium
state of the Universe in the future. There is an
experimentally discovered influence of terrestrial and
external irreversible processes upon the mass, density,
elasticity, electric conductivity and other properties of
matter. The time flow is emitted and absorbed by irreversible
processes, creating an association with transition of
passionarity (by L.N.Gumilyov) from passionaries to impulsive
people, the influence decreasing with spacing and time
(Gumilyov 1989, p.267). The influence of the flow according
to N.A.Kozyrev, propagates with a velocity much greater than
that of light and provides determination by the future
(Kozyrev 1980; Kozyrev and Nasonov 1980). It should be
mentioned that these astronomical results have been
reproduced by modern researchers (Lavrentyev et al. 1990
a,b). Some results for gyroscopes similar to those of
N.A.Kozyrev's (1958) experiments have been obtained (probably
quite independently) by Japanese scientists (Hayasaka and
Takeuchi 1989); their results turned out to be hard to
reproduce, so it caused a scientific discussion so far
unfinished (Quinn and Picard 1990; Faller et al. 1990;
Nitschke and Wilmarth 1990). Some publications are appearing
on the role of "Kozyrev's flow" in the conception of life
(Danchakov and Eganova 1987; Levich 1991). It should be
pointed out that N.A.Kozyrev's views hardly agree with the
existing physical conceptions. The magnitudes of the measured
effects are small and, in principle, one can explain them by
more prosaic reasons than the influence of "the time flow."
However, so far there exists neither a consistent disproof of
N.A.Kozyrev's experimental results, nor their explanation by
usual physical factors, but there still remains a reasonable
doubt in the unambiguous of both the experimental data
interpretation and the theoretical conceptions. It can be
forecasted that in the coming decade the interest to
Kozyrev's ideas will be intensively developed and widely
Returning to historical time, one can discover that the
ideas of natural science are surprisingly similar to those of
L.N.Gumilyov (1979/1989) who believes that historical time
reveals itself via richness in events and the thing we call
"time" is the process of energy potential equalling which is
sometimes interrupted by shocks recreating the energy
potential inequality, i.e., the variety. Impulses appearing
in the anthroposphere due to these shocks are nothing else
but creative activity showing itself in aspiration now for
beauty, now for the truth, now for justice, now for power,
now for victory...
References to natural- scientific publications
There is a curious application of natural-scientific
methods to another problem of historical time, namely,
historical chronology (Fomenko 1990). Methods of applied
statistics were used in an analysis of chronicles and annals.
It was discovered that a "modern textbook" on chronology can
be obtained if one consecutively glues together four
practically identical "short chronicles" moved below (with
respect to their "original") approximately by 330, 1000 and
1800 years. In other words, one can assume that chronology
adopted at present was probably obtained from the "real" one
by dubbing and considerable lengthening. This work continues
the investigations of Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727) and
Russian encyclopaedist N.A.Morozov (11854-1946).
Sociologists can find material for useful associations
in the book by A.V.Zhirmunski and V.I.Kuzmin (1990) where
quantitative laws are established for alteration of
evolutionary and spasmodic (critical) periods of natural
system development. Certain constants have been obtained
which determine a relation between consecutive critical
values of process characteristics.
Development of social time conceptions in 1980-1990 took
place along with enrichment of knowledge on time in biology
(Maurin 1980, 1982, 1986; Detlaf 1982, 1987, 1989; Prokofyev
et al. 1982; Smirnov 1982; Meyen 1983; Alyakrinski and
Stepanova 1985; Voitenko 1985; Zaguskin 1986; Dubrov 1987;
Putilov 1987; Mikhailovski 1989; Sharov 1989), geography
(Armand 1989), geology (Krasnov 1982; "Razvitiye ucheniya o
vremeni v geologii", 1982; Onopriyenko et al. 1984; Afanasyev
1987;Oleynikov 1987; Kosygin 1990; Simakov 1990), chemistry
(Yershov 1983; Komarov and Ryazanova 1984) and physics
(Kulakov 1980; Vladimirov 1982, 1984, 1987; Eganova 1984;
Logunov 1985; Pimenov 1987; Chernin 1987; Aristov 1989;
Arushanov and Korotayev 1989; Klimontovich 1989; Shikhobalov
1989; Novikov 1990).
I would like to draw the reader's attention to several
events of Soviet scientific life of the last decade which are
indirectly connected with social life studies and, as it
seems to me, created grounds for fruitful development of the
scientific thought in general for the coming years. At the
very end of the seventies in Leningrad the All-Union
Symposium on the Problems of Time in Psychology and Biology
was organized (Organizing Committee Chairperson
N.I.Moiseyeva); in 1980 Proceedings of this conference were
issued entitled "The Time Factor in Functional Organization
of Activity of Living Systems". In 1984 in Leningrad a
conference on the problems of time in arts took place
(Organizing Committee Chairperson O.I.Pritykina); in 1988 its
materials were published in a book entitled "Space and Time
in Arts". The All-Union School-Seminar "Analysis of Time
Constructions in Natural Science" (Organizing Committee
Chairman A.P.Levich) took place in 1988 near Moscow, the
school was organized by the constantly working
interdisciplinary Moscow Seminar on Time Studies in Natural
Science which acts in Moscow University from 1984; the
initiative group of the seminar prepared for publication the
book "Conceptions and Constructions of Time in Natural
Science". In 1990 in Leningrad the International Seminar
"Problems of Time in Cosmology: History and Contemporaneity"
took place (Organizing Committee Co-chairman A.V.Soldatov);
the materials of this meeting should be published soon.
Russian philosophy of the beginning of the century
in the period of glasnost
Concluding the overview, I would like to mention some
publications with which my contemporaries were able to get
acquainted only in late eighties, although I mean the works
of Russian social scientists and philosophers carried out as
early as at the very beginning of the century; for decades
these works were unaccessible for readers.
The importance of the four-dimensional sight not so much
in physics as in being, art, religion; the four-dimensional
images of the society and individuality; the temporal
thickness of objects; the four-dimensional completeness of
personality and the necessity of a complete four-dimensional
image of an elementary object of the society or the humanity
- that is what was told by P.A.Florenski (1988) in his
manuscript "Analysis of spatial vision in the works of fine
arts" written in the twenties.
In 1925 in a manuscript entitled "Essays of musical
aesthetics" A.F.Losev insisted on the necessity of time
phenomenology (Losev 1990). According to A.F.Losev, time is
not motion and not a measure of motion, it is not a thing and
not a psychic state, time implies existence of something
out-of-time, it implies the concept of number and its
embodiments. Time is creativity where not everything is given
at the outset, where each moment of the whole should be
conquered, created, fixed, consolidated. Time is a shapeless
set, an undistinguishiable and mobile continuity. It is
alogical and is possible only if there is an unknown future
in it, or the realm of chance.
S.A.Askoldov (1922/1990) taught that, since time means
changes, while the words "past, present and future" loose
their meaning outside consciousness, then time is, above all,
the state of a soul, while motion is time translated into the
language of space.
The time of history was the subject of N.A.Berdyaev's
(1969/1990) reflections; he asked, whether something
essential, penetrating to the deepest core of being, is
connected with time, or time is just a form and a condition
for the world of phenomena, and came to the conclusion that
the time of history is not a phenomenon, it is a noumenon.
AFANASYEV S.L. (1987) 'Geokhronologicheskaya shkala
fanerozoya i problema geologicheskogo vremeni' (Phanerozoic
geochronological scale and the problem of geological time).
AKHUNDOV M.D. (1982) 'Kontseptsii prostranstva i
vremeni: istoki, evoliutsiya, perspektivy' ( Conceptions of
space and time: sources, evolution, prospects). Moscow:
Nauka. (1986) Conceptions of Space and Time: Sources,
Evolution, Direction. London: MATPress.
AKHUNDOV M.D. (1982 b) 'Prostranstvo i vremia v
fizicheskom poznanii' ( Space and time in physical cognition).
AKHUNDOV M.D. (1985) 'Prostranstvo i vremia: ot mifa k
nauke' ( Space and time: from myth to science) / Priroda
(Nature), No.8; p.53-64.
ALYAKRINSKI B.S. and STEPANOVA S.I. (1985) 'Po zakonu
ritma' ( By the law of rhythm). Moscow: Nauka.
ARISTOV V.V. (1989) 'Vremia, sviazannoye so
statisticheskoy modelyu chasov' (Time connected with the
statistical clock model). Moscow: VINITI, No.7596-B89.
ARMAND A.D. (1989) 'Vremia v naukakh o Zemle' (Time in
the Earth science). Moscow: VINITI, No.7597-B89.
ARTYOMOV V.A. (1987) 'Sotsialnoye vremia. Problemy
izucheniya i ispolzovaniya' ( Social time. Problems of its
study and use). Novosibirsk: Nauka.
ARUSHANOV M.L. and KOROTAYEV S.M. (1989) 'Potok vremeni
kak fizicheskoye yavleniye (po N.A.Kozyrevu)' (The time flow
as a physical phenomenon (according to N.A.Kozyrev)). Moscow:
ASKOLDOV S.A. (1922) 'Vremia i ego preodoleniye' (Time
and its overcoming). Moscow: Mysl. Pp.80-83.
ASKOLDOV S.A. (1990) 'Vremia ontologicheskoye,
psikhologicheskoye i fizicheskoye' (Ontological,
psychological and physical time) / 'Na perelome'
(Filosofskiye diskussii dvadtsatykh godov: filosofiya i
mirovozzreniye' (At the turning point. Philosophic
discussions of the twenties: philosophy and world outlook).
BARG M.A. (1984) 'Kategorii i metody istoricheskoy
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